Arpolax 20 mg TabletPresentationArpolax tablet: Each tablet contains Citalopram Hydrobromide INN equivalent to Citalopram 20 mg.DescriptionCitalopram is an orally administered selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a chemical structure unrelated to that of other SSRIs, tricyclic, tetracyclic or other available antidepressant agents. The mechanism of action of Citalopram as an antidepressant is presumed to be linked to potentiation of serotonergic activity in central nervous system resulting from its inhibition of CNS neuronal reuptake of serotonin (5-HT).IndicationsCitalopram is indicated for depressive illness and panic disorder. It is also indicated in substance abuse disorders and alcohol dependence. Citalopram has also been given in variety of anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia. It is also effective in generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, premenstrual syndrome, idiopathic Parkinson's disease and eating disorder.Dosage & AdministrationDepressive illness 20 mg daily as a single dose in the morning or evening; increased ifnecessary to maximum 60 mg daily (Elderly maximum 40 mgdaily).Panic disorder Initially 10 mg daily, increased to 20 mg after 7 days; usual dose 20-30 mg daily; maximum 60 mg daily (Elderly maximum 40 mgdaily).Side EffectsSSRIs are less sedating and have fewer antimuscarinic and cardiotoxic effects than tricyclic antidepressants. However, side-effects may be seen, includes gastro-intestinal effects (nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, constipation), anorexia with weight loss, palpitations, tachycardia, postural hypotension, cough, confusion, impaired concentration, amnesia, urinary retention, sweating, movement disorders, urticaria, anaphylaxis, arthralgia, myalgia and photosensitivity.PrecautionsCaution should be taken in patients with epilepsy, concurrent electroconvulsive therapy, history of mania, cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, angle-closure glaucoma, history of bleeding disorders, hepatic and renal impairment. Abrupt withdrawal of Citalopram should be avoided.Use in Pregnancy & LactationPregnancyThere are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women; therefore, Citalopram should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.LactationCitalopram is excreted in human breast milk. So, the decision whether to continue or discontinue either nursing or Citalopram therapy should take into account the risks of Citalopram exposure for the infants and the benefits of Citalopram treatment for the mother.Drug InteractionKetoconazole, Itraconazole or Macrolide antibiotics and Citalopram co-administration decreases the metabolism of Citalopram. Omeprazole and Citalopram co-administration might decrease the clearance of Citalopram.Over DoseIt is a very safe drug. There were no reports of fatal Citalopram overdose in clinical trials involving overdoses of up to 2000 mg.Commercial PackArpolax tablet: Box containing 3 blister strips of 10 tablets...
Indication: CavirTM is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in adults
with evidence of active viral replication and either evidence of
persistent elevations in serum aminotransferases (ALT or AST) or
histologically active disease.Dosage & Administration: CavirTM should be administered on an empty stomach (at least 2 hours after a meal or 2 hours before the next meal).
Nucleoside-treatment-naive (16 years): 0.5 mg once daily.
Lamivudine-refractory or known lamivudine or Telbivudine resistance mutations (16 years): 1 mg once daily...
Myomine InjectionDescriptionDopamine Hydrochloride Injection BP is a clear and colorless solution for intravenous infusion after dilution.Dopamine hydrochloride can stimulate alpha, beta and dopamine receptors. At infusion rates of 0.5 to 2 micrograms/kg/min, dopamine receptors are selectively activated and blood pressure either does not change or decrease slightly. The most important effects are renal and mesenteric vasodilatation. Renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion usually increase. At infusion rates of 2 to 10 micrograms/kg/min, beta1-receptors are activated and cardiac output and systolic blood pressure increase.IndicationsMyomine is recommended for the correction of haemodynamic imbalance present in-• Acute hypotension or shock associated with myocardial infarction, endotoxic septicaemia, trauma and renal failure.• As an adjunct after open heart surgery, where there is persistent hypotension after correction of hypovolaemia.• In chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure.Dosage & AdministrationDopamine is a potent drug. It must be diluted before administration.Dilution: Aseptically transfer Sterile Dopamine Concentrate into the intravenous solution as per the table below:Strength (milligrams/5 ml)Volume (ml)Intravenous solution volume (ml)Final concentration (micrograms/ml)2005250800200550040020010 (2 ampoules)250160020010 (4 ampoules)5001600In patients in whom greater fluid load is undesirable, an alternative regimen is suggested:Strength (milligrams/5 ml)Volume (ml)Intravenous solution volume (ml)Final concentration (micrograms/ml)20010 (2 ampoules)250160020010 (4 ampoules)5001600Rate of administration: Administration at rates greater than 50 micrograms/kg/minute has safely been used in advanced circulatory decompensation states. If unnecessary fluid expansion is of concern, adjustment of drug concentration may be preferred over increasing the flow rate of a less concentrated dilution.Dosage: Begin administration of diluted solution at doses of 2 to 5 micrograms/kg/min in patients who are likely to respond to modest increments of heart force and renal perfusion.In more seriously ill patients, begin administration of diluted solution at doses of 5 micrograms/kg/min and increase gradually using 5 to 10 micrograms/kg/min increments up to 20 to 50 micrograms/kg/min as needed.In patients who do not respond to these doses with adequate arterial pressures or urine flow, additional increments may be employed in an effort to produce an appropriate arterial pressure and central perfusion. If doses of dopamine in excess of 50 micrograms/kg/min are required, it is suggested that urine output be checked frequently. Should urine flow begin to decrease in the absence of hypotension, reduction of dosage should be considered. Once optimal haemodynamic effects have been achieved, the lowest dose that maintains these effects should be used. Multiclinic trials have shown that more than 50% of the patients were satisfactorily maintained on doses of dopamine less than 20 micrograms/kg/min.Side EffectsN/APrecautionsDo not add Dopamine to any alkaline diluent solution, since the drug is inactivated in alkaline solution. Patients who have been treated with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors prior to the administration of dopamine will require substantially reduced dosage. Hypovolaemia should be fully corrected prior to treatment with dopamine with a suitable plasma expander or whole blood or plasma.Use in Pregnancy & LactationPregnancy: It is not known whether dopamine crosses the placental barrier. The benefits of using this product should be weighed against the possible risks to the foetus.Lactation: It is not recommended for breast-feeding mothers unless the expected benefits outweigh any potential risks.Over DoseExcessive elevation of blood pressure could be expected from accidental overdose. In case of accidental overdose the rate of administration should be reduced or the infusion discontinued temporarily until the patient's condition stabilizes.StorageStore below 30 °C and protect from light...
Indication:Anxiety pain from apprehension and depression, acute and chronic stress of life, skeletal muscle spasm and strychnine poisoning. For surgical measures, Sedil® is a useful premedication (I.M. route recommended).Dosage & Administration:Sedil® 15 to 30 mg daily in divided doses.Preparation:Sedil® Tablet : Box containing 25 x 20 tablets in blister pack.Sedil® Injection : Box containing 2 x 5 ampoules in blister pack...
(Tamoxifen) is a non-steroidal, triphenylene-based antineoplastic drug .
In breast cancer patients, at the tumour level, Tamoxifen acts
primarily as an antioestrogen, preventing oestrogen binding to the
oestrogen receptor. If used to the right paTamona®
(Tamoxifen) is a non-steroidal, triphenylene-based antineoplastic drug.
In breast cancer patients, at the tumour level, Tamoxifen acts
primarily as an antioestrogen, preventing oestrogen binding to the
oestrogen receptor. If used to the right pa
Tamona Prescribing InformationLocated in: Oncology..
DescriptionFludrocortisone acetate is a synthetic adrenocortical steroid possessing very potent mineralocorticoid properties and high glucocorticoid activity.IndicationsUsed for oral mineralocorticoid replacement therapy in:- Primary and secondary adrenocortical insufficiency in Addison’s disease- Salt losing adrenogenital syndrome- Postural hypotensionDosage & Administration- Primary and secondary Adrenocortical Insufficiency in Addison’s disease: Usual dose may range from 0.2 mg 3 times weekly to 0.2 mg daily. If hypertension occurs, reduce dosage to 0.05 mg daily.Administer concomitantly with Cortisone or hydrocortisone.- Salt-Losing Adrenogenital Syndrome: 0.1 to 0.2 mg/day.- Postural Hypotension: 0.1-0.4 mg daily to diabetic patients with postural hypotension; 0.05-0.2 mgdaily to patients with postural hypotension secondary to Levodopa therapy.Side EffectsMost adverse reactions are caused by the drug’s mineralocorticoid activity (retention of sodium and water) include erythema, purpura, vertigo, pancreatitis, increased intraocular pressure, muscular weakness, hypertension, edema, cardiac enlargement, congestive heart failure, steroid myopathy, peptic ulcer, osteoporosis, convulsions, menstrual irregularities, potassium loss, hypokalemic alkalosis, allergic and anaphylactic reaction etc. When Fludrocortisones is used in the small dosages recommended, side effects are not usually a problem; however the above mentioned unwanted effects should be kept in mind, particularly when Fludrocortisone is used over a prolonged period of time or in conjunction with cortisone or a similar glucocorticoid.PrecautionsBecause of its marked effect on sodium retention, the use of Fludrocortisone in the treatment of conditions other than those indicated herein is not advised. Fludrocortisone should be used with caution in patients suffering from different infections (like tuberculosis, measles, chicken pox, herpes zoster or threadworm infestation), congestive cardiac failure, hypertension, renal insufficiency, osteoporosis, drug-induced secondary adrenocortical insufficiency, peptic ulcer, intestinal anastomosis and ulcerative colitis.Use in Pregnancy & LactationPregnancy: Pregnancy category C. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Fludrocortisone is only recommended for use during pregnancy when there are no alternatives and benefit outweighs the risk.Lactation: There are no data on the excretion of fludrocortisone into human milk. However, corticosteroids (systemic therapy) are distributed into breast milk and could cause growth suppression and/or other adverse effects in nursing infants. The manufacturer recommends that caution be used when administering Fludrocortisone to nursing women.Drug InteractionInteractions can occur with following drugs: Amphotericin B, potassium-depleting diuretics, anticholinesterases, anticoagulants, antidiabetics. Antitubercular drugs, cyclosporine, digitalis glycosides, oral contraceptives and ketoconazole .Over DoseOverdose is unlikely; however, treatment of overdose is by supportive and symptomatic therapy.StorageStore in a cool and dry place, protected from light...
Indication: Anleptic® is indicated for
. partial and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures
. primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures
. trigeminal neuralgia
. prophylaxis of bipolar disorder Dosage & Administration:Epilepsy:
Adults and children over 12 years of age - Initial: Either 200 mg
b.i.d. for tablets and XR tablets, or 1 teaspoon q.i.d. for suspension
(400 mg/day). Increase at weekly intervals by adding up to 200 mg/day
using a b.i.d or a t.i.d. or q.i.d. regimen of the either formulations
until the optimal response is obtained. Dosage generally should not
exceed 1000 mg daily in children 12-15 years of age, and 1200 mg daily
in patients above 15 years of age. Doses up to 1600 mg daily have been
used in adults in rare instances. Maintenance: usually 800-1200 mg
Children 6-12 years of age - Initial: Either 100 mg b.i.d. for tablets
or XR tablets, or 1/2Show more Preparation: Anleptic
® 200 tablet: Each box contains 50 tablets in blister packs.
® 200 CR tablet: Each box contains 50 tablets in blister packs.
® suspension: Each bottle contains 100 ml suspension in PET bottle.
Fluphenazine decanoate 25mg/lml ampoule: injection.lml amp x 5’s pack: 350.00 MRP.IndicationsIn the long-term management of psychotic disorders including:SchizophreniaMania andOrganic brain syndrome.Therapeutic ClassPhenothiazine drugsPharmacologyFluphenazine blocks postsynaptic mesolimbic dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors in the brain; depresses the release of hypothalamic and hypophyseal hormones and is believed to depress the reticular activating system thus affecting basal metabolism, body temperature, wakefulness, vasomotor tone, and emesis.Dosage & AdministrationFluphenazine Decanoate by deep intramuscular injection into the gluteal muscle, test dose 12.5 mg (6.25 mg in elderly), then after 4-7 days 12.5-100 mg repeated at intervals of 14-35 days, adjusted according to response; it is not recommended for children.InteractionFluphenazine reverses antihypertensive effects of Guanethidine, Methyldopa and Clonidine. It also causes lithium toxicity by interacting with it. Antacids may reduce bioavailability of phenothiazines. Additive CNS depressant effects produced with alcohol, barbiturates, hypnotics, sedatives, opiates and antihistamines.ContraindicationsFluphenazine Decanoate oily Injection is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to the drug. Also contraindicated in comatose or severely depressed states, blood dyscrasias, liver disease, pregnancy (3rd trimester), lactation.Side EffectsThe side effects include tardive dyskinesia, sedation, mental confusion; hypotension; hyperprolactinaemia leading to galactorrhoea and amenorrhoea in women; loss of libido, impotence and sterility in males. Also include allergic reactions, cholestatic jaundice, corneal and lens deposists, skin pigmentation. Other potential adverse reactions are agranulocytosis; neuroleptic syndrome...
blepharoconjunctivitis, conjunctivitis, dacryocystitis, keratitis,
keratoconjunctivitis, acute meibomianitis, corneal ulcers, external
otitis, chronic suppurative otitis media.Dosage & Administration:1-2 drops in affected eye 6 times a day or frequently Ear: 2-3 drops every 3-4 times a day or frequently...
Infudex 10% IV Infusion 500 ml bagIndication:Simple dehydration, Carbohydrate depletion, hypoglycemic coma, General weakness etc.Dosage & Administration:Dose is variable. It depends on the clinical condition, age and body surface area of the patients.Preparation:Infudex™ 5 IV Infusion, 500 ml: Each 100 ml solution contains 5 gm Dextrose Anhydrous USP.Infudex™ 5 IV Infusion, 1000 ml: Each 100 ml solution contains 5 gm Dextrose Anhydrous USP.Infudex™ 10 IV Infusion, 500 ml: Each 100 ml solution contains 10 gm Dextrose Anhydrous USP. Infudex™ 10 IV Infusion, 1000 ml: Each 100 ml solution contains 10 gm Dextrose Anhydrous USP...
Insulatard is a long-acting insulin. This means that it will start to lower your blood sugar about 1½ hours after you take it, and the effect will last for approximately 24 hours. Insulatard is often given in combination with fast-acting insulin products.How to use this insulinInsulatard is for injection under the skin (subcutaneously). Never inject your insulin directly into a vein or muscle. Always vary the sites you inject, to avoid lumps (see 5 Possible side effects). The best place to give yourself an injection are: the front of your waist (abdomen); your buttocks; the front of your thighs or upper arms. Your insulin will work more quickly if you inject it around the waist.Insulatard vials are for use with insulin syringes with the corresponding unit scale.To inject Insulatard on its own1. Just before injecting this insulin, roll the vial between your hands until the liquid is uniformly white and cloudy. Resuspending is easier if the insulin has reached room temperature2. Draw air into the syringe, in the same amount as the dose of insulin you need3. Inject the air into the vial: push the needle through the rubber stopper and press the plunger4. Turn the vial and syringe upside down5. Draw the right dose of insulin into the syringe6. Pull the needle out of the vial7. Make sure there is no air left in the syringe: point the needle upwards and push the air out8. Check you have the right dose9. Inject straight away...
DescriptionSimplovir is the brand name of Aciclovir, a synthetic purine nucleoside with inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus(HSV-1 & HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The activity of Aciclovir is highly selective due to its affinity for the enzyme thymidine kinase encoded by HSV and VZV. This viral enzyme converts Aciclovir into Aciclovir monophosphate, a nucleotide analogue. The monophosphate is further converted into diphosphate and finally triphosphate by a number of cellular enzymes. In vitro, Aciclovir triphosphate stops replication of herpes viral DNA. This is accomplished in 3 ways: 1) Competitive inhibition of viral DNA polymerase, 2) Incorporation into and termination of the growing viral DNA chain and 3) Inactivation of the viral DNA polymerase.Indications• Herpes Zoster• Genital Herpes• Chickenpox• Herpes Simplex Infections• Herpes Simplex EncephalitisDosage & AdministrationThe total daily dosage of Aciclovir should be based on the type or severity of infection and given in equally divided doses based on consideration of degree of susceptibility of the pathogens, renal function and body-weight.Simplovir Tablet• Acute Herpes Zoster:800 mg every 4 hours, 5 times daily for 7 to 10 days.• Genital Herpes:Initial Genital Herpes: 200 mg every 4 hours, 5 times daily for 10 days.Chronic suppressive therapy for recurrent disease: 400 mg 2 times daily for up to 12 months.Intermittent therapy: 200 mg every 4 hours, 5 times daily for 5 days.• Chickenpox:Children (2 years of age and older): 20 mg/kg/dose 4 times daily (80 mg/kg/day) for 5 days.Adults and Children (>40 kg): 800 mg 4 times daily for 5 days.Simplovir IVThe required dose of Aciclovir IV should be administered by slow intravenous infusion over a one-hour period.• Herpes Simplex (HSV-1 and HSV-2) Infections:Adults and Adolescents (≥12 years): 5 mg/kg, 8 hourly for 7 days.Pediatrics (<12 years): 10 mg/kg 8 hourly for 7 days.• Severe Initial Herpes Genitalis:Adults and Adolescents (≥12 years): 5 mg/kg 8 hourly for 5 days.• Herpes Simplex Encephalitis:Adults and Adolescents (≥12 years): 10 mg/kg 8 hourly for 10 days.Pediatrics (3 months to 12 years of age): 20 mg/kg 8 hourly for 10 days.• Neonatal Herpes Simplex (Birth to 3 months):10 mg/kg 8 hourly for 10 days.• Varicella Zoster:Adults and Adolescents (≥12 years): 10 mg/kg 8 hourly for 7 days.Pediatrics (<12 years): 20 mg/kg 8 hourly for 7 days.Dose adjustment of Tablet for patients with acute or chronic renal impairment, based on Creatinine Clearance, Cr Cl (mL/min/1.73 m2):For Cr Cl= > 25 : 800 mg 4 hourly 5 times dailyFor Cr Cl = 10 to 25 : 200 mg 4 hourly 5 times daily or 400 mg 12 hourly or 800 mg 8 hourlyFor Cr Cl = 0 to 10 : 200 mg 12 hourly or 400 mg 12 hourly or 800 mg 12 hourlyDose adjustment of IV for patients with acute or chronic renal impairment, based on Creatinine Clearance, Cr Cl (mL/min/1.73 m2):For Cr Cl = > 50 : 100% of recommended dose, 8 hourlyFor Cr Cl = 25 to 50 : 100% of recommended dose, 12 hourlyFor Cr Cl = 10 to 25 : 100% of recommended dose, 24 hourlyFor Cr Cl = 0 to 10 : 50% of recommended dose, 24 hourlyCaution: Rapid or bolus intravenous injection must be avoided. Intramuscular or subcutaneous injection must be avoided.Reconstitution procedure of IV infusionVial containing 250 mg Aciclovir will be reconstituted with 50 ml infusion solution and vial containing 500 mg Aciclovir will be reconstituted with 100 ml infusion solution. Besides, Vial containing 1 gm Aciclovir will be reconstituted with 250 ml infusion solution. 10 ml of the infusion solution will be added to the vial containing 250 mg, 500 mg and 1 gm Aciclovir. Shake well and transfer the required amount of solution to the infusion container. The final concentration of Aciclovir will be not more than 5 mg/ml.The reconstituted solution should be used within 12 hours. Refrigeration of reconstituted solution may result in the formation of a precipitate which will re-dissolve at room temperature.Compatible infusion fluidsSodium Chloride Intravenous Infusion BP (0.45% and 0.9% w/v)Sodium Chloride (0.18% w/v) and Glucose (4% w/v) Intravenous Infusion BPSodium Chloride (0.45% w/v) and Glucose (2.5% w/v) Intravenous Infusion BPHartmann\\\'s SolutionSide EffectsRash, gastro-intestinal disturbances, rises in bilirubin and liver-related enzymes, increase in blood urea and creatinine, decreases in hematological indices, headache, neurological reactions, fatigue.PrecautionsAciclovir should be administered with caution in patient with renal impairment and doses should be adjusted according to creatinine clearance.Use in Pregnancy & LactationPregnancy category B & caution should be exercised when it is administered to a lactating mother.Drug InteractionProbenecid reduces Aciclovir excretion and so increases plasma concentration and risk of toxicity.StorageKeep in a cool & dry place away from light. Keep drugs out of the reach of children...
Xylogel 2% Gel 30 gm tubeIndicationsLidocaine 2% jelly is indicated for prevention and control of pain in male and female urethra during cystoscope, catheterization, exploration by sound and other endourethral operations; for topical treatment of painful urethritis; for adequate analgesia in endoscopy and as an anesthetic lubricant for endotracheal intubation (oral and nasal).PharmacologyLidocaine acts mainly by inhibiting sodium influx through sodium specific ion channels in the neuronal cell membrane, in particular the so called voltage-gated sodium channels. When the influx of sodium is interrupted, an action potential cannot arise and signal conduction is inhibited. The receptor site is thought to be located at the cytoplasmic (inner) portion of the sodium channel. Lidocaine binds more readily to sodium channels in activated state, thus onset of neuronal blockade is faster in neurons that are rapidly firing. This is referred to as state dependent blockade.Dosage & AdministrationThe dosage varies and depends upon the area to be anesthetized, vascularity of the tissues, individual tolerance, and the technique of anesthesia. The lowest dosage needed to provide effective anesthesia should be administered. Dosages should be reduced for children, elderly and debilitated patients.InteractionLidocaine should be used with caution in patients receiving antiarrhythmic drugs, such as tocainide, since the toxic effects are additive.ContraindicationsLidocaine jelly is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anaesthetics of the amide type.Side EffectsAaphylactoid reactions such as cutaneous lesion, urticaria and oedema; drowsiness , nervousness, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, convulsions, unconsciousness, respiratory arrest, hypotension, myocardial depression, bradycardia and cardiac arrest.Overdose EffectsAcute emergencies from local anesthetics are generally related to high plasma levels encountered during therapeutic use of local anesthetics. If not treated immediately, both convulsions and cardiovascular depression can result in hypoxia, acidosis, bradycardia, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest. If cardiac arrest occurs, standard cardiopulmonary resuscitative measures should be instituted...